Alcohol and depression| Royal College of Psychiatrists
In addition it may explain why antidepressants have been shown to Causal relationship between Alcohol use disorder and depression has been in the latter the person uses alcohol to relieve the depressive symptoms. Alcohol abuse and depression are both serious problems that you shouldn't ignore. You can also get help from Alcoholics Anonymous or an Assess Your Symptoms. Objective: To examine the association of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms with alcohol abuse or dependence in young adulthood.
Fewer studies have examined pathways connecting problems with alcohol use and depression over time, or potential gender differences within those pathways. Such work may have substantial prevention implications, highlighting targets and time-points for prevention efforts. Models of co-occurrence Several models describe the pathways through which depression may predict alcohol use, and vice versa.
These models share an emphasis on the importance of risk processes common to both depression and alcohol use. Notable shared risk factors include peer relational difficulties, such as peer rejection and association with deviant peer groups e.
Directional models propose that family conflict and peer deviance are among the main pathways through which depression may predict later substance use and vice versa. Thus, examining the role of these risk factors represents an important step in delineating pathways connecting substance use and depression over adolescence. In addition to these shared risk factors, there are also several, more specific, proposed directional models for co-occurrence.
First, some evidence supports the influence of earlier substance use on subsequent depression e. Similarly, adolescent alcohol abuse may interfere with brain development Hermens et al. Conversely, Hussong, Jones, Stein, Baucom, and Boeding reviewed evidence for an internalizing pathway to alcohol use disorders, in which early internalizing problems including depression predicted subsequent alcohol use through interpersonal interpersonal difficulties and peer deviance and cognitive alcohol use as a coping mechanism pathways.
For instance, McCarty et al.
Relatively few studies, however, have examined mediators of either directional model in detail. Gender differences Evidence regarding directional effects has been mixed, with some studies supporting bidirectional associations e. While several methodological factors might contribute to this variability e.
Gender differences in prevalence rates of depression have been well-documented e. Similarly, studies have demonstrated differences in alcohol use patterns across males and females.
However, gender differences in the relation between alcohol use and depression across development have been less studied, and results have been inconsistent.
Several studies have observed the association between alcohol use and depression in girls, but not boys e. Others, have either found earlier depression predicted subsequent alcohol use in boys, but not girls e. Kumpulainen, ; Tapert et al.
For instance, Fergusson, Boden, and Horwood found no evidence for gender differences in their year longitudinal study examining the association between alcohol use and depression. Finally, Marmorstein found baseline depression was more strongly related to baseline alcohol use for girls in early adolescence, but was related to stronger growth in alcohol use through late adolescence for boys.
Given the variability of findings, and the lack of studies testing whether intervening processes connecting depression and alcohol use may vary by gender, additional work examining the association between depression and alcohol use across genders over adolescence is needed Marmorstein et al. The current study examines data from a large school-based intervention trial, but focuses on developmental processes rather than treatment outcomes.
As a result, significant developmental differences across intervention and control groups are unlikely. The broad goal of the current study was to examine pathways connecting alcohol use and depression symptoms longitudinally from 6th to 9th grade.
Our study aimed to clarify the association between depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence and alcohol use disorders in young adulthood, controlling for adolescent alcohol use, using data from a prospective population-based longitudinal study of adolescent and young adult health and wellbeing. At each wave, extensive data were collected on key adolescent and young adult mental and behavioural health issues, including psychiatric morbidity and drug use tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs.
Sample and study design The study design is shown in Box 1. Measures Adolescent depression and anxiety. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in adolescence Waves 1—6 using the computerised version of the revised Clinical Interview Schedule CIS-R16 a structured, branched questionnaire, designed for assessing depression and anxiety symptoms in non-clinical populations. Young adult alcohol abuse or dependence. Potential confounding factors Demographic variables — obtained by participant self-report: Retrospective diary data for these participants were used to calculate total units of alcohol drunk per week.
Statistical analysis Missing data were handled using multiple imputation. Males and females were imputed separately.
The association between adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms and young adult alcohol abuse or dependence was examined using logistic regression. Only level of adolescent alcohol use was controlled for initially Model 1then adolescent alcohol use and other potential confounders were controlled for in Model 2.
Separate analyses were performed to examine interactions between adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms and adolescent alcohol use. After adjusting for persistence of adolescent alcohol use Model 1the risk of young adult alcohol use disorders increased with the number of waves of above-threshold adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms, but did not reach statistical significance. With adjustment for further potential confounders, the risk of young adult alcohol abuse or dependence increased for those who had one or two, and more than two, waves of above-threshold adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms, compared with those with no waves of above-threshold adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms.
Discussion Adolescents with moderate to high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms had an increased risk of alcohol abuse or dependence in young adulthood, compared with young adults with low levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. American Journal of Health Promotion. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intoxication and major depressive episode in a representative population sample.
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International Scholarly Research Notices
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