Table 2. Jet-Fuel Property Relation to Composition16 property . product low- temperature fluidity, including the fuel viscosity and freezing point. Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft Very low temperature freezing points reduce the availability of fuel. Higher flash The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti- static additive to Jet A Jet A trucks Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A density, thermal capacity, vapour pressure, chemical formula, etc. .. Jet A-1 is the international standard jet fuel, with a freezing temperature of Tf= ºC ( ºC .
The possibility of environmental legislation banning the use of leaded avgas, and the lack of a replacement fuel with similar performance, has left aircraft designers and pilot's organizations searching for alternative engines for use in small aircraft. This technology has potential to simplify airport logistics by reducing the number of fuel types required.
Jet fuel is available in most places in the world, whereas avgas is only widely available in a few countries which have a large number of general aviation aircraft. A diesel engine may also potentially be more environmentally friendly and fuel-efficient than an avgas engine.
However, very few diesel aircraft engines have been certified by aviation authorities. Diesel aircraft engines are uncommon today, even though opposed-piston aviation diesel powerplants such as the Junkers Jumo family had been used during the Second World War. Jet fuel is often used in ground support vehicles at airports, instead of diesel.
The United States military makes heavy use of JP-8, for instance. However, jet fuel tends to have poor lubricating ability in comparison to diesel, thereby increasing wear on fuel pumps and other related engine parts.
Jet fuel is more expensive than diesel fuel but the logistical advantages of using one fuel can offset the extra expense of its use in certain circumstances. In the United States LSD is now only available to the off-road construction, locomotive and marine markets.
As more EPA regulations are introduced, more refineries are hydrotreating their jet fuel production, thus limiting the lubricating abilities of jet fuel, as determined by ASTM Standard D Synthetic jet fuel[ edit ] Main article: Some synthetic jet fuels show a reduction in pollutants such as SOx, NOx, particulate matter, and sometimes carbon emissions.
The fuel was developed by Sasol. Naval Research Laboratory who are developing a process to make jet fuel from seawater. The technology requires an input of electrical energy to separate Oxygen O2 and Hydrogen H2 gas from seawater using an iron-based catalyst, followed by an oligomerization step wherein carbon monoxide CO and hydrogen are recombined into long-chain hydrocarbons, using zeolite as the catalyst.
The technology is expected to be deployed in the s by U. Navy warships, especially nuclear-powered aircraft carriers.
Moreover, the ADC methodology is used to enhance comparison of these three gas turbine fuels. Volatility information resulting from the measurements of the ADC-derived temperatures, Tk and Th, provides an approximation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium.
In addition, the examination of the ADC-derived composition channels gives detailed insight into the thermochemical properties of the fuels throughout the distillation, specifically the composite enthalpy of combustion. The data presented in this paper complements our earlier examination of the variability of gas turbine fuels, provides data necessary for the growing knowledge base, and is required to develop thermophysical models of complex mixtures.
Three jet fuels that have not been previously measured in our laboratory: The jet fuels were used as is and housed in their original containers in a flammables cabinet without temperature control.
FID and MS detection were used to quantify and identify any impurities. A commercial instrument was used and analyses were performed in triplicate.
A single taper liner with silanized pyrex wool was used. A fixed emission current of After exiting the GC column, the sample entered a quadrupole analyzer.
Jet fuel - Wikipedia
This gas is sufficient for the majority of tandem MS analyses in which only the precursor parent ion enters the collision cell to be fragmented into additional product ions. For fuels analyses, accurate identification of the hydrocarbons requires that the parent ions remain intact.
After exiting the collision cell, the sample entered a ToF analyzer. Ultimately, this extremely sensitive instrument provides the accurate mass of each compounds identified after deconvolution of the chromatogram, and thus, a detailed speciation with unprecedented accuracy was possible. Samples for 13C NMR spectroscopy were prepared by mixing 0. Therefore, the final concentration of Cr acac 3 in the NMR sample was 0.
A sweep width of Quantitative 13C spectra were obtained by use of inverse-gated waltz proton decoupling and a relaxation agent see above.
Viscosity of Aviation fuel and jet fuel – viscosity table and viscosity chart :: Anton Paar Wiki
An acquisition time of 0. After scans the spectra had signal-to-noise ratios of about The effectiveness of these parameters for producing quantitative 13C spectra was verified previously by collecting spectra for three test compounds under similar conditions.10 Facts About Jet Fuel - Jet Fuel 101
For the DEPT experiments, a coupling constant JC-H of Hz was used, as recommended for hydrocarbon fuels with both aromatic and aliphatic components. Other acquisition parameters for the DEPT experiments included an acquisition time of 1.