Relationship between spoken language and written assessment

relationship between spoken language and written assessment

In this lesson we'll explore the difference between spoken and written languages. Specifically, we'll highlight their ages, permanence of each. Oral language skills, not literacy, were predicted to support oral sentence Sentence generation was assessed at two different time points. The development of spoken language plays a key role in the development of written language. The relationship between spoken and written language No matter their age, a speech-language pathologist can assess and.

Differences between written and spoken language

The development of decoding skills appears to depend critically upon phonological language skills, and variations in phoneme awareness, letter—sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming each appear to be causally related to problems in learning to read. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be critically dependent on a range of oral language comprehension skills including vocabulary knowledge and grammatical, morphological and pragmatic skills.

Introduction In this review, we will consider a wide range of evidence about the inter-relationships between developmental disorders of reading and spoken language. When talking about spoken and written language development and their disorders, it is important to distinguish between the different component skills of both.

For spoken language, it is common to distinguish between four domains: When we consider written language, we need to distinguish between reading and spelling.

Within the domain of reading, it is important to make a further distinction between decoding usually assessed by the accuracy or fluency of reading aloud and comprehension the adequacy of understanding text, usually assessed by questions about the meaning of a passage. Mattingly [ 1p.

relationship between spoken language and written assessment

He was correct in the sense that a child's ability to learn to recode print which was the topic of his chapter is critically dependent on their phonological, or speech sound, skills. In short, reading for meaning depends on all four domains of oral language. The intimate relationship between spoken and written language skills has been long accepted in studies of development, but perhaps less so in studies of acquired disorders of these skills.

However, the primary systems hypothesis [ 34 ] sees adult cases of reading disorders, just like developmental cases, as reflecting impairments to underlying primary brain systems systems concerned with different aspects of oral language as well as visual processing mechanisms.

The interface between spoken and written language: developmental disorders

This view suggests that models of acquired and developmental disorders of reading already show a good degree of alignment. Models of reading development and reading disorders Understanding a disorder of development depends on having a model of normal development for the skill in question [ 5 ].

More broadly, any complete model of cognitive performance in adulthood needs to be compatible with evidence about how the process in question developed. Studies of development can, in turn, inform and constrain theories of adult psychological functioning.

To quote Baldwin [ 6p.

Differences between writing and speech

The argument that is at the heart of this review, that language problems are the predominant causes of problems in learning to read, rests upon two different models of how language processes operate to determine the course of normal reading development: Currently, there are two influential classes of model of adult word reading: Dual-route models conceptualize adult word recognition as depending upon independent lexical and sublexical routes from the written form of a word to its pronunciation.

By contrast, connectionist theories of word reading are explicitly developmental and see word reading as being dependent upon the integrity of phonological and semantic representations that exist in the language processing system before reading develops.

According to the triangle model, learning to read essentially consists of creating mappings or associations between visual representations of the letter strings that constitute words orthographic representations and the phonological and semantic representations of spoken language that correspond to those words.

The use of the semantic pathway may be particularly important for the reading of exception words that the phonological pathway does not handle efficiently. As noted earlier, it is important to distinguish between the ability to read words accurately and fluently and the ability to comprehend text. Accurate and fluent word reading are essential for good reading comprehension.

The interface between spoken and written language: developmental disorders

It follows from this model that problems with reading comprehension can arise from two different sources problems with decoding or problems with oral language comprehension.

Children with decoding problems are usually referred to as having developmental dyslexia. The existence of both of these groups of children, who will be discussed below, is exactly what we would expect from the simple view of reading. This will be the main focus of this review. Developing and testing causal theories of developmental disorders The issue that lies at the heart of developmental psychology is an attempt to establish the causes of development.

The idea that learning to read is parasitic on earlier developing oral language skills is a broad and non-specific causal theory. In the sections that follow, this general theory will be fleshed out. Before doing so, it is useful to reflect on the sorts of evidence we can use to test causal theories in this area. Spoken language tends to be full of repetitions, incomplete sentences, corrections and interruptions, with the exception of formal speeches and other scripted forms of speech, such as news reports and scripts for plays and films.

Writers receive no immediate feedback from their readers, except in computer-based communication.

relationship between spoken language and written assessment

Therefore they cannot rely on context to clarify things so there is more need to explain things clearly and unambiguously than in speech, except in written correspondence between people who know one another well. Speech is usually a dynamic interaction between two or more people. Context and shared knowledge play a major role, so it is possible to leave much unsaid or indirectly implied.

Writers can make use of punctuation, headings, layout, colours and other graphical effects in their written texts.

relationship between spoken language and written assessment

Such things are not available in speech Speech can use timing, tone, volume, and timbre to add emotional context. Written material can be read repeatedly and closely analysed, and notes can be made on the writing surface. Only recorded speech can be used in this way. Some grammatical constructions are only used in writing, as are some kinds of vocabulary, such as some complex chemical and legal terms.