Bhadra River | Revolvy
Kudali village in Shimoga district is at the confluence of two rivers, Tunga and Bhadra. The famed Rameshwara temple, flanked by the rivers. Koodli is a small village in Shimoga District. This is the place where rivers Tunga and Bhadra meet, and then on flow together as Tungabhadra. Koodli is a small village in Shimoga District, in the Indian state of Karnataka. Koodli is the place where two rivers, the Tunga River and Bhadra River, meet to.
They either migrate to the other region in the river where the DO level is suitable or they show mortality. Their migration to other regions also possesses threat on them, as they face more competition, predation risk, catching risk. In this study we adopt the approach of QUAL2K model based on Streeter Phelep equation in the modeling of dissolved oxygen throughout the km stretch of Tungabhadra.
A database is prepared showing the tolerance level Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Temperature of fishes occurring in Tungabhadra. The study shows how the change in the point source loading affects the water quality in the river stretch specifically DO level and how this changed level affects the spatial distribution of the fishes inhabiting the stretch.
On the basis of the database and the DO model of the river, the spatial distribution of fish species in the stretch is assessed. Methodology Study site The study area includes km stretch of River Tungabhadra, a peninsular river formed by the confluence of two tributaries of river Krishna, Tunga and Bhadra. The river stretch is used to study the impact of water quality due to point source discharge on the spatial distribution of fish species along the stretch. Dissolved Oxygen is considered as the major limiting factor for their spatial distribution.
The river stretch receives 8 effluent and sewage discharges from the industries and cities nearby. Shimoga city sewage has been discharged in Tunga. The two important indicators of health of water, zooplanktons and dissolved oxygen are considered in this study.
Schematic diagram of Tunga Bhadra.
Increasing trend of BOD and decreasing trend of DO at Bhadravathi site clearly indicates the increasing load of pollution in the stream.
The pH at Bhadravathi site shows the acidic nature of water [ 9 ]. The lowest DO level 5. Surface water temperature is responsible for distribution of plankton [ 11 ]. Kumara [ 12 ] said that, Mining and quarrying activities, along the bank of the river Bhadra at Bhadravathi, the Mysore Paper Mills and Vishweshvarayya Iron and Steel Industries have resulted in decreased depth and increased siltation.
The river has two other tributaries, Kumadavati and Haridra They join Tunga-Bhadra River from west and east directions at a distance of 84 and km downstream of the junction, respectively. Manjappa [ 14 ] estimated that around 15 villages in the area from Bhadravati to Kudli have been affected by industrial pollution.
The study conducted by Suresh [ 15 ], considered certain biological species, both phytoplanktons and zooplanktons, also known as the bioindicators, were found only in certain zones of Tunga-Bhadra River, depending on the quality of the river water. Thus, six zones were located along the km long river bank starting from Harihar town to its stream to the Sarathi Halla, near Dittur village.
Shahnawaz [ 10 ] recorded only six fish species in Bhadra, They are Labeo calbasu, Osteo bramaneilli, Ompokbi maculatus, Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Oreochromismoss ambica. Fast-growing Indian major carps are the prominent commercial fishes [ 16 ]. Babu [ 17 ] stated that, the State has promoted fast-growing Indian major carps like Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala [ 18 ], and exotic fish like Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella, resulting in the decline of native fish population comprising Labeo, Cirrhinus, Puntius, Catfish, Murrels, etc [ 19 ].
The manual readings of the water quality parameters at different locations on the stream can act as database for their simulation throughout the stream.
Various mathematical models are given to determine the value of parameter Dissolved Oxygen at a particular point in the stream. These models correlate the physical parameters depth, width, slope of the river bed, temperature and water quality parameters CBOD, DO, pH, alkalinity. Quantitative techniques started to be used to assess the impacts of pollutants on the river systems in when Streeter and Phelps developed a model for simulating DO in the river systems kannel [ 21 ].
Chapra [ 22 ] described a mathematical model as an idealized formulation that represents the response of a physical system to external stimuli. While similarly, [ 23 ] described a water-quality model as anything from a simple empirical relationship, through a set of mass balance equations, to a complex software suite in which a user can simulate water quality in streams and rivers by supplying physical and chemical data.
Chapra and Pelletier [ 24 ] Developed QUAL2Kw, A framework for the simulation of water quality in streams and rivers, this framework includes a genetic algorithm to facilitate the calibration of the model in application to particular water bodies.
It is used to find the combination of kinetic rate parameters and constants that results in a best fit for a model application compared with observed data.THUNDERING TUNGA / BADRA RIVER - This Monsoon Captured 13 JULY 2014
Outside, there are two temples of Hoysala times dedicated to Rameshwara and Narasimha. Koodali is also known as Varanasi of the south.
It is home to Rushyashrama, Brahmeshwara, Narasimha and Rameshwara temples. The year-old mutt of Shankaracharya still stands with inscriptions of Hoysala and Okkeri kings. Tunga Joins Bhadra in Koodli Rear view of the Rameshwara temple, built in the Hoysala style at the Sangama Ornate entrance to the main shrine inside the Rameshvara temple A small shrine inside the Rameshvara temple The place has a historic value, with temples of near Hoysala time.
Tunga + Bhadra at Koodli | SHANDE
There are shasanas carved near the temples that indicate the era when they were built. The exact dates are disputed, but the sculptures date back to age old Indian culture and look exotic.
There are various temples - small and large ones built by the rulers who ruled this place in the age old era. The Mutt[ edit ] There are two mutts schools in Koodli. Shankara Mutt[ edit ] There is very old Indian style school of learning for Shankara philosophy, called the Koodli mutt. This has a long history: Once upon a time in the 15th or 16th century, the chief swamy of Shringeri had been on a teerthayaatre, probably to Kashi.
He did not return for a long time, which caused the deputy chief to take up the chief's position. But the chief was alive and did return to Sringeri after a few days.