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They also took the clergy to task for failing speak out on behalf of the underdog. Hamad, for example, arrested in religious scholar Abdulrahman al Nuaimi who criticized his advancement of women rights. Al Nuaimi was released three years later on condition that he no longer would speak out publicly. For that reason, Qatar supported the dispatch to Bahrain in of a Saudi-led force to help quell a popular uprising in its own backyard but backed regime change elsewhere in the region.
Saad al-Faqih, who was blacklisted until by the United Nations Security Council on suspicion of terrorism, and Mohammed al-Masari. Saudi Arabia as far back as the s offered refuge to thousands of Brothers who fled repression in Egypt and Syria. Over time, they integrated into Saudi society, occupied key public sector positions, including in the education sector, and blended their politicized Islam with Wahhabism.
Al Sahwa and the Brotherhood hoped to utilize opposition to Saudi support of the US-led coalition that forced the withdrawal of Iraqi troops as a vehicle for pushing for political reform. Mohamed AlHadlaq died in Syria fighting as part of a Qatar-supported jihadist rebel group.DUBAI "ZABEEL STAFF MEET " 2017
That changed anti-Egyptian coup sentiment at home mounted and Brotherhood protests in Egypt continued. Throwing away caution, the kingdom went on the offensive. Brotherhood sympathizers in Saudi universities and schools were threatened with losing their jobs.
Brotherhood literature was in early banned for the first time at the Riyadh Book Fair. Ultimately, the kingdom followed Egypt in banning the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. Saudi Arabia is on the cusp of a generational change in leadership with an ailing king in his late 80s and a crown prince in his late 70s who may not be able to stymie the mobilizing power of political Islam in an era in which winds of change are blowing through the region. Qatar had already kindled the fire in with its concession to human rights groups not to extradite a dissident Saudi diplomat to the kingdom.
Instead, the diplomat, Mishal bin Zaar Hamad al-Mutiry, who accused his government of involvement in terrorism, was allowed to go into exile in Morocco. Egyptians in Qatar moreover are only a minority. So why is Qatar doing it?
Egypt charged a score of mostly Al Jazeera journalists or ones whom authorities alleged were associated with the network with spreading false information, endangering national security and being members of a terrorist organization, a reference to the Brotherhood. Egyptian and Saudi chagrin was further fuelled by the fact that Al Jazeera Arabic provided post-Morsi the Brotherhood and Islamist leaders their foremost platform on a major global network.
Doha, home to Sheikh Qaradawi, moreover emerged as a potential base for a Brotherhood and Egyptian Islamist leadership in exile that included men who were wanted in Egypt and the kingdom. Abdel Majid, who is wanted by Egypt on charges of incitement to murder, spent 25 years in prison for his role in the assassination of President Anwar Sadat.
What we are doing is only creating a sleeping monster, and this is wrong. We should bring them all together, we should treat them all equally, and we should work on them to change their ideology, i.
If we exclude anything from the Syrian elements today, we are only doing worse to Syria. The official played down the jihadi character of some of the Syrian rebel groups. Muslims, Christians, Jews — whenever they have a crisis, they come close to God. This is the nature of man. If we see that someone is calling Allahu Akbar God is greatthe other soldier from the regime is also calling Allahu Akbar when he faces him.
While the ruling families of both have sought to buffer themselves against protests by boosting social spending, Saudi Arabia has opted for maintenance of the status quo to the degree possible and has graduated from limited engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood to open confrontation with the group. The threat posed by the Brotherhood and Qatari promotion of political activism is reinforced by the fact that concepts of violent jihad have largely been replaced by Islamist civic action across the Middle East and North Africa in demand of civil, human and political rights that hit too close to home.
It allowed Qatar to create a challenge to Saudi claim to leadership of the Muslim World. Among the first Brotherhood arrivals was Abdul-Badi Saqr, an Egyptian who came in at the invitation of the Qataris to help set up their education system. As a result, Saqr was fired and replaced by an Arab nationalist.
With Qaradawi Qatar had created a global mufti  in much the same way that it built a global television network and a global airline and hosts global sporting events. He represented in the words of controversial Islam scholar Yahya Michot the three dimensions of a spiritual leader that many in the global community of faithful were looking for: It is also a fixture on Qatar state television which broadcasts his Friday prayer sermons live.
Qaradawi strove to develop a new strand of legal thought that he described as fiqh al-thawra or jurisprudence of the revolution. He argued that protests were legitimate if they sought to achieve a legitimate end such as implementation of Islamic law, the release of wrongly incarcerated prisoners, stopping military trials of civilians or ensuring access to basic goods. We have Qaradawi — and all his daughters drive cars and work.
With the eruption of the protests in various Arab countries inQaradawi was instrumental in persuading Qatar to use its political and financial muscle to support the Brotherhood in Egypt; the revolt in Libya against Col. Qaradawi appeared to back Saudi encouragement of the divide between Sunni and Shia Muslims. He urged Muslims with military training to join the anti-Assad struggle in Syria. It seems that the clerics of Saudi Arabia were more mature than me.
The Brotherhood, like Al Jazeera, which more often than not is the last to report on controversial domestic Qatari issues, cut a deal in the late s with the Al Thanis which guaranteed it continued Qatari support in exchange for the dismantling of its operations in Qatar and a pledge that it would operate everywhere except for in Qatar itself.
For its part, Qatar moved to fund institutions designed to foster a generation of activists in the Middle East and North Africa as well as guide the Brotherhood in its transition from a clandestine to a public group. A medical doctor, Al-Sultan has since the dissolution of the group in Qatar advised the Brotherhood to reach out to others rather than stick to its strategy of building power bases within existing institutions.
The threat to Saudi Arabia posed by Qatari fostering of popular protest was compounded by the nature of the social contract in the kingdom and other energy-rich rentier Gulf states.
As a result, Qatari government support of Al Nahda and AOC was part of its effort to control the world of national non-governmental organizations by creating and populating its own NGOs. Sharpening the rivalry Beyond historic differences in religious experience and practice, two events sharpened the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Qatar: To the Qataris, the invasion demonstrated that it could not rely for its defense on a country that was not capable of defending itself.
In what was primarily a symbolic gesture that was also adopted by the UAE, Qatar adopted in November a law making military service of up to four months compulsory for its mail citizens aged 18 to Similarly, the Kuwait parliament was debating reintroducing compulsory military service abolished after the Iraqi invasion.
They further deteriorated as a result of several allegedly Saudi-backed coup attempts in the late s designed to restore Sheikh Khalifa to power. The attempts prompted Qatar almost a decade later to strip some 6, members of the Al-Ghafran clan, a branch of the Al Murra tribe, of their Qatari nationality because they had allegedly patrolled the border on behalf of the Saudis.
Qatari officials asserted at the time that they had lost their nationality because they had refused to renounce their Saudi nationality in line with Qatari law that does not allow dual citizenship.
The deteriorating relationship with its big brother made it even more imperative for Qatar to strike out on its own — the very thing Saudi Arabia thought to preempt. A struggle for a multi-billion dollar Qatari project to supply gas to Kuwait reflected the Saudi effort.
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Hence it is not feasible. If the natural gas deal was emblematic of Qatari-Saudi relations, so was a London libel case in which the wife of former emir Sheikh Hamad and mother of new emir Sheikh Tamim, Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser al-Missned, sued Saudi-owned Ash Sharq al Awsat newspaper for falsely reporting that her husband had secretly visited Israel. Saudi Arabia sees Iran as a major rival that is instigating civil unrest in the region.
It is also the spiritual home of the Shiites, the sect most despised by Saudi Wahhabis. To do so, it has forged relationships with other Saudi nemeses such as Hamas and Hezbollah and Israel.
The kingdom has since forged its own alliance with Israel in response to a potential rapprochement between the United States and Iran. Qatari relations with Israel initially however provoked Saudi ire. Then Saudi Crown prince Abdullah refused to attend an Arab summit in because of the presence in Doha of an Israeli trade office. The appearance on Al Jazeera two years later of Saudi dissidents persuaded the kingdom to withdraw its ambassador to Qatar much like it did again in InSaudi Arabia and Qatar held rival Arab summits within a day of each other despite an improvement in relations in the two preceding years that included a deal allowing Al Jazeera to open a bureau in Riyadh provided it did not air dissident Saudi voices.
The winning of the hosting rights for the World Cup meant that Qatar needed to project stability in its backyard.
Its ability to do so independent of Saudi Arabia was enhanced with the eruption of the Arab popular revolts that allowed Qatar to project itself as an island of stability, modernity and progress in a sea of volatility and conservatism. Qatar maintains close ties to the powerful Islamist Brotherhood-related Al-Islah movement, supports Al Houthi rebels in the north, and emerged at one point as a mediator in Yemen.
It succeeded for a brief period of time in superseding Saudi Arabia as the go-to-address in a country in which kidnapping for political and criminal purposes are a fixture of life as was evident with the release of a kidnapped Swiss teacher. Qatar built its inroads in a country Saudi Arabia viewed as its preserve on its relationship with the Brotherhood as well as a history of mediation in Yemen that dated back to the s.
It forged close ties to Nobel Prize winner and prominent Yemeni activist Tawakkol Karma, who emerged as the face of the popular revolt against Saleh. It further capitalized on its relationship with Maj. Hadi was accompanied by General Al-Ahmar. Similarly, when Al Islah leader Muhammad al-Yadumi travelled to Doha in to thank the government for its support he did not include Saudi Arabia on his itinerary.
When Tamim took over the reins of power in Junehe inherited a state that his father ensured was tightly controlled by his wing of the Al Thanis. Hamad created institutions and government offices that were populated by loyalists as well as his offspring and bore the characteristics of autocracy: Sharia courts have the exclusive jurisdiction to hear family disputes, including matters involving divorce, inheritances, child custody, child abuse and guardianship of minors.
In the absence of any particular provision in the UAE codified law, the Islamic principles of Sharia as found in the Islamic Sharia textbooks are applied. The Sharia court may, at the federal level only which, as mentioned earlier, excludes Dubai and Ras Al Khaimahalso hear appeals of certain criminal cases including rape, robbery, driving under the influence of alcohol and related crimes, which were originally tried in lower criminal courts.
The Court of Cassation: The Court of Cassation is the highest court in the UAE, and it will only hear disputes on matters of law.
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The Court of Cassation will not only act as an appellate court with respect to the decisions of lower courts, but will also supervise these lower courts to ensure that they are applying and interpreting the law correctly.
Lower courts must abide by the legal principles set down by the Court of Cassation. The Emirate of Dubai has its own Court of Cassation. Drafted 22 March Edited for content and to include post research into the topic.
Constitutionality of Laws and Judicial Review: The Court of Cassation is also entrusted with judicial review for all legislation, both for laws that originate at the federal level and for those enacted by the individual emirates. Provincial and Local Government Each of the seven emirates has its own government, which functions in tandem with the federal government. Municipalities administer the main cities, each of which has a municipal council.
Local departments carry out various administrative functions. A similar system of municipalities and departments exists in the other emirates. Article shows that the Emirates shall exercise all powers not assigned to the Union by this Constitution.
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The Emirates shall all participate in the establishment of the Union and shall benefit from its existence, services and protection while article describes the targets of the rule in each emirate which are maintaining security and order within its territories and the provision of public utilities for its inhabitants and the raising of social and economic standards. In connection with the matters regarding to the execution of judgments and requests for commissions of rogation and serving legal documents and surrender of fugitives between member Emirates of the Union, Article provides that it shall be regulated with utmost ease by Union law.
Several federal ministries, authorities and institutions are being ceased or merged. In the new government strategy, the UAE has a roadmap to outsource most government services to the private sector. Introduction of the post of Minister of State for Happiness, whose primary mission is to harmonies all government plans, programs and policies to achieve a happier society Merger of Ministries of Education and Higher Education with two Ministers of State in support Foundation of Emirates Schools Establishment to manage public schools as an autonomous, semi-independent authority Merger of Marriage Fund into Ministry of Social Affairs; nurseries will fall under the Ministry of Education Establishment of Higher Education and Human Resources Council to restructure the development of human resources Establishment of an independent entity to oversee public hospitals Renaming Ministry of Health to Ministry of Health and Prevention of Diseases; the ministry will focus on prevention of diseases in addition to regulating the health sector.
Renaming Ministry of Cabinet Affairs to Ministry of Cabinet Affairs and Future; it will be tasked with devising future strategies Establishment of a Council of Youth to be chaired by a woman Minister of State for Youth whose age is no more than 22 years; the Council will have an elite group of young men and women who will serve as advisors to the government. Creation of a Ministry of State for Happiness UAE has taken the initiative to appoint the minister of state for happiness to be the first in the region, and one of the few in the world.
This step was made part of the Cabinet re-shuffle and the creation of the government of the future. The Minister of State for happiness will assume the responsibility of harmonizing all government plans, programmers and policies to achieve a happier society.
The appointed minister, Her Excellency Ohoud bint Khalfan Al Roumi, is a young woman which indicates the trend of the UAE government to encourage assigning women and youth in the leadership positions.
The center introduces the artificial intelligence technology, Watson, and smart robots which has been launched to offer customers unprecedented services. This step aims to facilitate and streamline the access to vital government services through reducing the number of visits to all in one visit and unified payment. We chose three different topics to focus on: The deficit is typically funded by additional contributions from the two emirates, together with some support from the UAE Central Bank.
Negotiations are under way with other members of the Gulf Cooperation Council to prepare a common data standard and fiscal accounting framework. Governed by Federal Law 7 ofthe State Audit Institution SAI conducts audits of ministries, federal government departments, public corporations, and all entities in which public ownership is at 25 percent or more of total shares. In cases of financial misconduct the president of the SAI may decide to prosecute the case before a special disciplinary council or to refer it to the concerned authority.
The SAI is expected to write a general annual report of all its activities. All auditors in the country must register with the Ministry of Economy and Commerce. The Public Tenders Law 16 of regulates all public-sector tenders except those concerning federal defenses or the individual emirates. The requirement that only UAE entities or nationals may bid may be waived when bids are directly solicited from manufacturers or, on a case-by-case basis, when the goods or services are not widely available.
The UAE consists of seven states emirates. Abu Dhabi, the most renowned oil-rich state rated as the world's richest city by Fortune in — and Dubai — the commercial hub of the Middle East. The country is home to many projects with international flavor including the world's tallest tower, biggest airport, seaport and indoor theme park.
The country realized the significance of foreign investment some time ago and has sought to meet the competing demands of the world's largest building program whilst providing an investment climate that meets those demands. Investors need to understand or at least be receptive to the region's language, culture and legal system and the particular style that needs to be followed in commercial agreements and negotiations.
A lawyer's day-to-day professional life encompasses a variety of issues including - advising on the most suitable investment structures; ensuring legal and regulatory compliance; drafting and vetting of complex agreements and documents; due diligences and negotiations with counterparties.
Also, in recent years we have witnessed a phenomenal growth in dispute resolution through arbitration. Like other central banks it issues the national currency and directs monetary, credit and banking policy.
It also sponsored a seminar in about informal financial transfers in efforts to regulate and license this segment of the financial system. In lateit joined the International Finance Corporation in promoting international practices of corporate governance in the formal banking sector.
The Central Bank tightened its supervision and monitoring program over the banks following a series of banking scandals and difficulties with non-performing loans in the s and early s.
It also set a new risk-weighted minimum capital-asset ratio of Basel recommended minimum. A new anti-money laundering law in May gave the Central Bank the power to freeze any suspected accounts for seven days without prior legal permission.
The banks were required to provide all details of their clients and internal and external transactions on request and to report on any suspected deal. The Central Bank has already frozen or blacklisted nearly 30 bank accounts on these grounds and uncovered several money-laundering operations inside the UAE. The federal government has encouraged diversification and privatization of the economy. Dubai has taken the lead in encouraging foreign investment, in efforts to become a leading hub of international commerce, while Abu Dhabi, which accounts for many percent of the oil production, is spearheading the privatization of utilities and seeking foreign investment in some sectors of the economy, particularly the power industry, to bring in modern technology and management techniques and reduce costs.
The most ambitious privatization plans concern water desalination and producing and distributing electricity. The companies are to be created in Abu Dhabi to manage the different aspects of producing, operating, scheduling, dispatching and distributing of water and electricity.
Other issues include the elimination of government subsidies of water and electricity as well as a plan to trim some strong staff in the industry in order to lower costs and increase profitability. The Dubai International Financial Center in turned opened global operations in Septemberand efforts are continuing, with advice from the IMF, to develop a comprehensive regulatory framework for these emerging capital markets.
There are plans to establish a Securities Exchange Markets Board to monitor the market. Listed companies are obliged in the interests of transparency to issue quarterly financial statements. The Central Bank is keen to promote the development of a bond market, as a means to improve liquidity, and allow companies to raise medium-and long-term finance.
The DIFC possesses its own legal structure and financial regulations, drawn up on the basis of international best practices. The regulatory structure for the center was published in December Business Laws in the UAE The UAE provides a supportive legal framework for businesses in line with the vision of country's leadership and their deep conviction that an effective legal framework in par with international standards is essential to a competitive and prosperous economy.
The country has issued a number of laws related to the economy, trade and investment since its formation in These laws are listed in the right column of the page. New Business Laws and Amendments The UAE is currently working on upgrading a number of key legislations, especially with regard to the development of the country's economic infrastructure and investment climate in a bid to better address investment issues and regulate the relationship between all parties concerned with the country's economic development and investment process.
Draft bills on foreign investment, competition, arbitration, certificate of origin, industry affairs organization, suppressing commercial fraud, industrial property law, federal law on organization of the auditing profession and federal law on commercial companies are already being reviewed by the relevant authorities.
The new law on foreign investment removes a large part of the regulatory and administrative obstacles to attract more foreign and Arab direct investment. It is aimed at creating a unified regulatory framework for foreign investment in terms of regulating investment procedures, registration and licensing.
The law also deals with the advantages, tax exemptions and guarantees for foreign investors, as well as their rights and obligations. The competition law is aimed at promoting the principle of competition and evolving a competitive market that is ruled by sheer market mechanisms.
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The law is envisaged to free the national economy from all wrong practices that adversely affect its efficiency, including monopolies which are against the principle of competition and prohibits all types of acts that lead to a monopoly. The law also provides a conducive environment for businesses to promote efficiency, competitiveness, consumer welfare and sustainable development in the country. Law on Certificate of Origin: The law on certificate of origin aims to reorganize the legislations related to the rules of the certificate of origin based on the progress achieved in this area.
The new law will address various issues pertaining to the origin of national goods and issuance of certificates of origin. It will also allow the Ministry of Economy to impose penalties and fines on those who issue fake certificates, documents or data. New Federal Law on Commercial Companies: The New Law on Commercial Arbitration: The new commercial arbitration law in collaboration with a number of legal experts from the Abu Dhabi Conciliation and Arbitration Centre.
As per the new law, civil cases will be heard by the civil courts of respective emirates, while the Abu Dhabi Federal Court of Appeal will hear international cases.
Development of Business Laws Significant efforts go into the development process of laws and legislations to ensure their compatibility and relevance to the general economic and social conditions of the country.
Preparation of laws takes a series of procedures and discussions involving several federal and local government bodies. The Ministry of Economy, when introducing any amendments to an existing law or preparing a new bill, presents a memorandum seeking the permission of the cabinet which, after studying the request, authorizes the ministry to form the draft bill.
The ministry then prepares a first draft of the bill which is shared with the competent authorities from local bodies or the private sector to discuss and collect their opinion and observations or publish it on the ministry's website before the final version of the bill is prepared.
After this stage, the proposed bill is presented to the cabinet for approval and then to the Technical Committee for Legislation in the Ministry of Justice which includes legal experts who study the draft bill from various aspects and make necessary modifications in coordination with the Ministry of Economy.
The committee reviews the law and makes necessary amendments in accordance with the policy orientation of the country. After the committee's review, the bill goes to the cabinet for its review and approval and then to the Federal National Council for further discussion and approval. The Ministry of Presidential Affairs then scrutinizes the final version of the law and publishes it in the Official Gazette.